Sustainable dual-channel closed-loop supply chain network design problem: A lighting industry case study
AbstractThis study focuses on the concept of triple bottom lines of sustainability to provide an extension to the supply chain network design (SCND) under uncertainty. The proposed SCND is another closed-loop supply chain with the possibility of new product development for the lighting industry in Iran. To tackle the uncertain parameters of the problem (e.g., prices and demand), a fuzzy approach, so-called Jimenez’s method, is applied. Since a multi-objective optimization model is established accordingly, a weighted sum method is utilized to transform it into a single objective model. Another innovation is to develop two new hybrid meta-heuristic algorithms with new procedures. To have a fair comparison, a Taguchi method is used to select the proper values for the parameters of the proposed algorithms. The results of the meta-heuristics are investigated with different criteria and metrics for an industrial example in Iran. Finally, a comprehensive discussion is built to reveal the managerial insights of the results.